Great Bridge Moskvoretsky
One of the main bridges in Moscow, Red Square extension - Large Moskvoretsky bridge appeared in its present form in 1938, but before ...
For a long time in Moscow did not build permanent bridges, and it was not in the craftsmanship, building materials or even in something: the constant threat of military attacks by the Tatars, who came from the south, where the river itself has long served as a natural barrier, made it impossible to put a permanent crossing . And in general in Russia, while the permanent bridge is almost not there.
Description of Sigismund Herberstein in Muscovy, which he did in the early 16th century, more like a disaster film of the crossings for the winter the river and marshes (the ambassador of the Emperor of Austria, traveled by local authorities and the population). What was the fate of the alien population which is counteracted, everyone knows.
When traveling in winter, as many cross the largest rivers in the summer is even more difficult.
Across the Moscow River had several fords, one of them - Crimean, so named because of the steppe nomads of the Crimea. Here's a view of the Crimean ford, with views of the Great Stone Bridge, we see in the picture Savrasov.
Therefore, the first bridge on the Moscow River has long made floating and arranged in low places, which would quickly remove them at risk of attack, ice and for the passage of vessels. Here is a "living bridge" from the related logs in a raft in existence since 1498, he was opposite the Water Gate of Kitay-town on the route linking the Tverskaya street from the Serpukhov and led to the south.
So this bridge in the reign of Peter the Great found a Dutch engraver, Peter Picard, in his engraving shows just two of the main Moscow Bridge: Stone and Moskvoretsky (right)
In 1789 was built, finally, permanent wooden pile bridge.
And in the 1829-1833 years. Engineer Peter Y. de Witte has upgraded both Moskvoretsky Bridge: Big across the Moscow River and through the Small Drainage Canal. For the Big Bridge, he built the stone pillars on which rested the wooden arch spans of 28 meters. Then in Moscow were built of stone embankments: Moskvoretskaya, Sofia, The Kremlin, Raushskaya. From the waterfront to the river and hills were gatherings for horses and carts. In order not to obstruct the river, they have deepened in the embankments.
It is this kind we see in the picture Bushebua Louis, written in the mid-19th century.
In 1870 the wooden arches were burned, and in 1872 - an engineer V.K.Shpeyrom installed metal spans.
They got the picture Korovin "Moskvoretsky Bridge", who wrote her out of the current window of the hotel "Baltschug"
wrote to the Kremlin and the bridge and Moskvoretsky Arkhip Kuindzhi, on a postcard of his film "Moscow. View of the Kremlin from Zamoskvorechye "
In the pictures and postcards of the early 20th century, we see a lot of buildings on the left bank of the river, but on the mark in 1959 near the Spassky Tower you can see the approaches to the bridge and the famous Vasilevsky descent, is empty, free from all the buildings specifically for the possibility of holding parades and demonstrations .
It is at its May 27, 1987 on an airplane, "Cessna" Mathias Rust landed, no one is hurt, except the entire leadership of the army of the USSR.
A modern concrete bridge across the Moscow River with a single span, built in 1938 as an engineer VS Kirilov and architect Shchusev (author of the mausoleum), while large-scale reconstruction of Moscow.
And on the Big Moskvoretskaya bridge, and on the Big Stone created panoramic site overlooking the Kremlin, and the river embankments. And the bridges themselves were so beautiful, and often fell on postage stamps.